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Services & Patient Education

Accessible insights into our services, along with educational resources on symptoms, causes, treatments, and more!

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Here are a few of the most common treatments that we provide:


Even though bunions are a common foot deformity, there are misconceptions about them. Many people may unnecessarily suffer the pain of bunions for years before seeking treatment.

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Patient Education Articles

Accessory Navicular Syndrome

The accessory navicular (os navicularum or os tibiale externum) is an extra bone or piece of cartilage located on the inner side of the foot just above the arch.

Achilles Tendon Rupture

A tendon is a band of tissue that connects a muscle to a bone. The Achilles tendon runs down the back of the lower leg and connects the calf muscle to the heel bone.

Ankle Fractures

A fracture is a partial or complete break in a bone. 

Ankle Sprain – Chronic Ankle Instability

An ankle sprain is an injury to one or more ligaments in the ankle, usually on the outside of the ankle. Ligaments are bands of tissue – like rubber bands – that connect one bone to another and bind the joints together.

Bunions (Hallux Abducto Valgus)

Even though bunions are a common foot deformity, there are misconceptions about them. Many people may unnecessarily suffer the pain of bunions for years before seeking treatment.

Calcaneal Apophysitis (Sever’s Disease)

Calcaneal apophysitis is a painful inflammation of the heel’s growth plate.

Capsulitis of the Second Toe

Ligaments surrounding the joint at the base of the second toe form a “capsule,” which helps the joint to function properly.

Cavus Foot (High-Arched Foot)

Cavus foot is a condition in which the foot has a very high arch.

Charcot Foot

Charcot foot is a condition causing weakening of the bones in the foot that can occur in people who have significant nerve damage (neuropathy).

Deep Vein Thrombosis

The blood supply of the leg is transported by arteries and veins. The arteries carry blood from the heart to the limbs; veins carry blood back to the heart.

Diabetic Complications and Amputation Prevention

People with diabetes are prone to having foot problems, often because of two complications of diabetes: nerve damage (neuropathy) and poor circulation.

Diabetic Foot Care Guidelines

Diabetes can be dangerous to your feet – even a small cut can produce serious consequences.

Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy

Diabetic neuropathy is nerve damage caused by diabetes. When it affects the arms, hands, legs and feet it is known as diabetic peripheral neuropathy.


Equinus is a condition in which the upward bending motion of the ankle joint is limited. Someone with equinus lacks the flexibility to bring the top of the foot toward the front of the leg.

Flexible Flatfoot

Flatfoot is often a complex disorder, with diverse symptoms and varying degrees of deformity and disability.

Fractures of the Calcaneus (Heel Bone Fractures)

The calcaneus, also called the heel bone, is a large bone that forms the foundation of the rear part of the foot. The calcaneus connects with the talus and cuboid bones.

Fractures of the Fifth Metatarsal

Fractures (breaks) are common in the fifth metatarsal – the long bone on the outside of the foot that connects to the little toe.

Fungal Toenails

Toenail fungus also called Onychomycosis is a common toenail condition that affects millions of people in the US.

Ganglion Cyst

A ganglion cyst is a sac filled with a jellylike fluid that originates from a tendon sheath or joint capsule.


Gout is a disorder that results from the build-up of uric acid in the tissues or a joint. It most often affects the joint of the big toe.

Haglund’s Deformity

Haglund’s deformity is a bony enlargement on the back of the heel. The soft tissue near the Achilles tendon becomes irritated when the bony enlargement rubs against shoes.

Hallux Rigidus

Hallux rigidus is a disorder of the joint located at the base of the big toe. It causes pain and stiffness in the joint, and with time it gets increasingly harder to bend the toe.


Hammertoe is a contracture (bending) of one or both joints of the second, third, fourth, or fifth (little) toes. This abnormal bending can put pressure on the toe when wearing shoes, causing problems to develop.

Heel Pain (Plantar Fasciitis)

Heel pain is most often caused by plantar fasciitis, a condition that is sometimes also called heel spur syndrome when a spur is present.

Heel Pain - Heel Spurs

The most common form of heel pain is pain on the bottom of the heel. It tends to occur for no apparent reason and is often worse when first placing weight on the foot.

Ingrown Toenails

When a toenail is ingrown, it is curved and grows into the skin, usually at the nail borders (the sides of the nail). This digging in of the nail irritates the skin, often creating pain, redness, swelling and warmth in the toe.

Lisfranc Injuries

The Lisfranc joint is the point at which the metatarsal bones (long bones that lead up to the toes) and the tarsal bones (bones in the arch) connect.

Malignant Melanoma

Melanoma is a cancer that begins in the cells of the skin that produce pigmentation (coloration).

Metatarsal Stress Fracture

When excessive stress is placed upon the ball of the foot, a hairline break (fracture) of a long metatarsal bone may occur.

Morton’s Neuroma (Intermetatarsal Neuroma)

A neuroma is a thickening of nerve tissue that may develop in various parts of the body.


A neuroma is the swelling of nerve that is a result of a compression or trauma. They are often described as nerve tumors.

Os Trigonum Syndrome

The os trigonum is an extra (accessory) bone that sometimes develops behind the ankle bone (talus).

Osteoarthritis of the Foot and Ankle

Osteoarthritis is a condition characterized by the breakdown and eventual loss of cartilage in one or more joints.

Pediatric Flatfoot

Flatfoot is common in both children and adults. When this deformity occurs in children, it is referred to as “pediatric flatfoot.”

Peripheral Arterial Disease (P. A.D.)

Commonly referred to as “poor circulation,” Peripheral Arterial Disease (P. A.D.) is the restriction of blood flow in the arteries of the leg.

Peroneal Tendonitis

There are three peroneal muscles in the lower leg. These muscles attach to the tibia and fibula bones on the outside of the lower leg.

Plantar Fasciitis – Arch Pain

Plantar fasciitis is an inflammation of a thick, fibrous ligament in the arch of the foot called the plantar fascia.

Plantar Fibromas – Lumps in the Arch of the Foot

A plantar fibroma is a fibrous knot (nodule) in the arch of the foot. It is embedded within the plantar fascia, a band of tissue that extends from the heel to the toes on the bottom of the foot.

Plantar Wart (Verruca Plantaris)

A wart is a small growth on the skin that develops when the skin is infected by a virus.

Posterior Tibial Tendon Dysfunction

Tendonitis can be a common problem in the foot as we continuously walk and use our feet on a daily basis.

Puncture Wounds

Puncture wounds are not the same as cuts. A puncture wound has a small entry hole caused by a pointed object, such as a nail that you’ve stepped on.

Rheumatoid Arthritis in the Foot and Ankle

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a disease in which certain cells of the immune system malfunction and attack healthy joints.

Sesamoid Injuries in the Foot

A sesamoid is a bone embedded in a tendon. Sesamoids are found in several joints in the body.

Soft Tissue Biopsy

A soft tissue biopsy is the removal and microscopic examination of a small sample of soft tissue for diagnostic purposes.

Stretching Exercises

Kneeling Stretch: Starting on your hands and knees, put the bottoms of your toes flat on the floor and sit back on your toes as much as you can.

Tailor’s Bunion

Tailor’s bunion, also called a bunionette, is a prominence of the fifth metatarsal bone at the base of the little toe.

Talar Dome Lesion

The ankle joint is composed of the bottom of the tibia (shin) bone and the top of the talus (ankle) bone.

Tarsal Coalition

A tarsal coalition is an abnormal connection that develops between two bones in the back of the foot (the tarsal bones).

Tarsal Tunnel Syndrome

The tarsal tunnel is a narrow space that lies on the inside of the ankle next to the ankle bones.

Toe and Metatarsal Fractures

The structure of the foot is complex, consisting of bones, muscles, tendons, and other soft tissues.

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